Tribal Art Tattoos- The Old Is New

The oldest known tattoo is that found on Oetzi, a Bronze Age warrior who lived some fifty-three centuries ago. Oetzi’s remains were founding 1991 preserved in the ice of the of an Alpone glacier on the border of Austria and Italy. Oetzi actually had fifty-seven separate tattoos, and although no one really knows their significance, it is possible that his intersecting and parallel lines are the earliest yet discovered example of tribal art tattoos. If so, Oetzi would be surprised to learn that he is quite the 21st century trend-setter.

In a world gone tattoo-mad, tribal art tattoos seem to have cause more than their fair share of the frenzy. They are the most requested, and most easily recognized, of all tattoos. With their startling black lines and sharply defined abstract shapes which somehow evoke animal, birds, and reptiles, tribal art tattoos remind us of a long-lost connection to an unspoiled world.

The term tribal art tattoos encompasses the tattoo styles developed by the by the African and Pacific Island tribal cultures, and of those the Maori people of New Zealand created the most distinctive tattoos. Their custom of identifying separate families within their tribes by cutting and coloring that family’s history into the faces of its descendants is known as Moko, and has been the inspiration for many a modern facial tribal art tattoo.

Maori tribal tattoo art is recognizable for its two types of patterns. One was a pigmented line, and the other involved inking the background and allowing the untouched skin to form the pattern. Many of the Maori tattoos contain spirals similar to fern fronds.

The Native American also used tribal art tattoos as a means of tribal identification, and their warriors had battle tattoos believed to provide protection; the tribes of Samoa, on the other hand, would cover their young men entirely in tattoos as a rite of passage into adulthood. Tribal art tattoos have been used for a variety of reasons, and very few of them were simply ornamental.

Tribal art tattoos did not make their way to the “civilized” world until they were brought back by nineteenth century sailors who were willing tolerate the extremely painful inking techniques practiced by the tribal tattoo artists. But the tribal art tattoos which have currently taken the world by storm are not quite the same as the ones which decorated the torsos of many a sun-burned deck hand.


The mainstream tribal art tattoos with which we re all so familiar are really a hybrid form of tattoo, which combines features of the ancient tribal tattoos with design elements first introduced in the 1990s by master tattoo artist Leo Zulueta, himself a Filipino-American. Zulueta has made a point never to copy directly from the original tribal art tattoo designs, because he considers it disrespectful for those not directly related to the tribes to wear their symbols of family and empowerment.

The most sought-after tribal art tattoos today are armbands; chains of knots, barbed-wire, or flames are all popular. Stylized animal heads and sunbursts are great for the shoulder or chest area, and circular navel tribal art tattoos are also quite common. The tribal art tattoo, in fact, works very well in emphasizing bodily contours, and there are many designs ideal for the curvature if the lower back. There is, in fact, a tribal tattoo art design to enhance every part of.

What is Marketing Analytics?

First, let’s discuss the term marketing, and start by defining what it is not (or at least, what it shouldn’t be). Real marketing is not manipulative. Real marketing is not the slick used car salesman trying to rip you off. Real marketing is nottrying to make a trash product look better than it really is. Real marketing isnot deceitful.

Real marketing means bringing valuable products and services to the people who need, want, and are able to purchase them. Assuming you have a product or service that is valuable to other people, you already have a market. The trick for you now is finding that market, educating about your product or service, and building trust so that the market will purchase. When this occurs, both parties win – you make the sale, and your market gets your valuable product or service.

It sounds like a simple idea, and in theory, it is. It’s when we need to apply this theory to real world situations and make marketing work that the problems occur. There are many questions to be answered, such as: Who is my market (who needs my product or service)? What will resonate with them? How do I best educate them about my product or service? What are the best channels to reach them? How do I communicate with them in a way that they will understand? What are the ways I build trust with them?


Because there are so many variables involved in marketing, it’s not possible to have exact answers to these questions. What’s more, the variables always seem to be in flux and we never have complete control over them, making it hard to find concrete, sure answers. Despite these difficulties, however, it still remains that we need marketing to work.

This is where the analytics enter the picture. Analytics, in practical terms, can be defined as the investigation of available data and facts (be it qualitative or quantitative) to arrive at an optimal decision. The analyst seeks to find true, valuable insight from the investigation of the data and circumstances.

Marketing Analytics

Combining the two terms, Pharma analytics companies
we arrive at marketing analytics, or the practice of investigating data and facts to make optimal and functional marketing decisions. The marketing analytics practitioner, then, must not only be able to do this type of analysis and see the data in context to get real insight, but he must also be able to translate this insight into action.

To be successful at marketing analytics, one must draw from a large base of knowledge and skills. An understanding of sociology, human relationships, psychology, communications, and statistics is necessary. Being able to write, educate, make an idea sticky, manipulate data, see data in context, and break down complexity into simplicity is essential. Marketing analytics can span from doing web analytics, search engine optimization, good website or advertisement design, social media, traditional PR channels, content creation, television and radio campaigns, to a myriad of other activities.

In short, it is not something you master in a day. It is a multi-faceted discipline that requires study, practice, and dedication.

The purpose of this blog is to help you understand and effectively use marketing analytics. We hope that by covering various aspects of marketing analytics on a daily basis, we can all come to a greater understanding and gain the ability to have success in the discipline.

What is a High Risk Merchant Account?

A high risk merchant account is a merchant account or payment processing agreement that is tailored to fit a business which is deemed high risk or is operating in an industry that has been deemed as such. These merchants usually need to pay higher fees for merchant services, which can add to their cost of business, affecting profitability and ROI, especially for companies that were re-classified as a high risk industry, and were not prepared to deal with the costs of operating as a high risk merchant. Some companies specialize in working specifically with high risk merchants by offering competitive rates, faster payouts, and/or lower reserve rates, all of which are designed to attract companies which are having difficulty finding a place to do business.

Businesses in a variety of industries are labeled as ‘high risk’ due to the nature of their industry, the method in which they operate, or a variety of other factors. For instance, all adult businesses are considered to be high risk operations, as are travel agencies, auto rentals, collections agencies, legal offline and online gambling, bail bonds, and a variety of other online and offline businesses. Because working with, and processing payments for, these companies can carry higher risks for banks and financial institutions they are obliged to sign up for a high risk merchant account which has a different fee schedule than regular merchant accounts.

A merchant account is a bank account, but functions more like a line of credit which allows a company or individual (the merchant) to receive payments from credit and debit cards, used by the consumers. The bank that provides the merchant account is called the ‘acquiring bank’ and the bank that issued the consumer’s credit card is called the issuing bank. Another important component of the processing cycle are the gateway, which handles transferring the transaction information from the consumer to the merchant.

The acquiring bank may also offer a payment processing contract, or the merchant may need to open a high risk merchant account with a high risk payment processor who collects the funds and routes them to the account at the acquiring bank. In the case of a high risk merchant account, there are additional worries about the integrity of the funds, and the possibility that the bank may be financially responsible in the case of any problems. For this reason, high risk merchant accounts often have additional financial safeguards in place, such as delayed merchant settlements, in which the bank holds the funds for a slightly longer period to offset the risk of fraudulent transactions. Another method of risk management is the use of a ‘reserve account’ which is a special account at the acquiring bank where a portion (usually 10% or less) of the net settlement amount is held for a period usually between 30 and 180 days. This account may or may not be interest-bearing, and the monies from this account are returned to the merchant on the standard payout schedule, once the reserve time has passed.

Payments to a high risk merchant account are deemed to carry an increased risk of fraud, and an increased risk of chargeback, refund, or reversal. For example, someone may use a stolen or forged credit or debit card to make purchases, or a consumer might attempt to execute an advance-authorization transaction (like renting a car or reserving a hotel), using a debit card with insufficient funds. high risk merchant account virtual terminal  This increases the risk for the bank and the payment processor, as they will have to deal with the administrative fallout of dealing with the fraud. Ecommerce can also be a risk factor, because businesses do not actually see an imprint credit card; they take orders over the Internet, and this can up the risk of fraud considerably.

When a merchant applies for a merchant account with a bank, payment processor, or other merchant account provider, there are many factors to consider before settling on a particular merchant provider. It is often possible to negotiate lower rates, and one should always request multiple quotes before choosing which high risk merchant account provider to use for their processing needs.

Natural Health – Planting Gardens in Your Belly and Backyard

If someone says to you “go eat dirt!” they may well mean it as a suggestion for your health.

Called “geophagy”, eating dirt has been a traditional practice, which can give nutrients to the body.

In Africa, pregnant women ate clay to consume the minerals it contained. With slavery this practice came to the United States and is still in the south where family and friends send “care packages” of good earth to expectant mothers.

I believe we all should put good cbd e juice bacteria in our bellies to promote good digestion, but I can’t say I like the idea of literally “eating dirt”.

A good probiotic and healthy food containing acidophilus will “plant” and help improve the garden that is growing in the gut (about 4 pounds of bacteria).

Adding probiotics and cultured foods can change the population of the bacteria – fending off the bad guys (pathogenic organisms) by bringing in the good guys (yogurt, kefir).

I think the Life 5 product from Young Living is one of the most superior probiotics that I have come across. I’ve got to be honest; I wasn’t that crazy about YL’s former probiotic product Royaldophilus, but what we have now in Life 5 is superb.

Another Young Living product for the digestive system that helps with eliminations (for people who are interested in cleansing) called Comfortone has several excellent ingredients, two being “of the earth”.

Bentonite clay and diatomaceous earth are very effective in absorbing toxins. This product has at least 20 other ingredients that are effective in supporting the health of the digestive system.

As far as the gardens in our backyards, you can give your plants an excellent form of calcium that won’t cost you anything (if you already eat eggs).

Break up eggshells and sprinkle it around the base of your plants, especially your vegetable plants.

I’m enjoying this irony. . . .
. . .putting dirt in our bellies and food in our garden!

How to Get Started With Sports Betting

Sports betting is simply placing a wager on a sporting event. You are betting that your team, horse, dog, or driver will win. If they do win, so do you! If they lose, you lose your bet amount. Sports betting takes place all over the world, though in the United States this type of betting is not as highly accepted as it is in Europe.

Online sports betting is probably the best option for those who are interesting in trying it for the first time. If you have never tried online sports betting, you are missing so much fun and excitement, and it can all happen in the comfortable surroundings of your home! The art of sports betting can seem confusing at first, but once you are familiar with some of the jargon that is used to explain the concepts and logic behind each type of bet, it is all much easier to understand.

One of the best ways for you to experience this engaging way to bet on your favourite racing and sporting events is to get acquainted with online sports betting. However, in order to best take advantage of all that sports betting has to offer, you need to know a little more about it.

Sports Betting – The Odds

How does online sports betting work? You should start by studying the odds for the sporting event you are most interested in placing a wager upon. When using online sports betting, you can find these odds in the various online sports books used by Internet gamers everywhere. You must open an account with an online sports book before you can place your bet, but this is simple to do.

Once you have chosen where you are going to do your sports betting, you need to decide how you are going to place your bet. There are many different ways for you to wager your chosen amount of money, but first, let’s talk about the spread and how it can affect the amount you bet.

Sports Betting – The Spread

The spread is a point advantage in sports betting, which is usually given to the team that is generally expected to lose a particular sporting event. If you decide that you will bet on the team that is expected to win, they will have to win by more than the spread number and cover the spread before you are considered to have chosen correctly. If you choose the team that is expected to lose, that team will have to lose by less than the spread number in order for your pick to be considered correct. If by chance the team wins by the number of points that were chosen as the spread, the game is called a push.

No one who engages in sports betting wins a thing if a game is called as a push, but you do get the amount of your original bet back. The point spread is done in order to make the all of the bets come out even for the sports book, and is usually done for sports such as basketball or football.

Sports Betting – The Bet

If you were to bet against the spread, 토토사이트 most likely you would place a type of bet called an 11-10, or spread bet. By betting $11, you win $10 if your team’s score covers the spread. This is another way that the online sports book makes its money.

An over-under bet is also an 11-10 bet. With this type of bet, the total score of the two teams that played will be either over or under the total score that was listed before the game was played. Betting on the score being over is called ‘betting on the ball’. Betting on the score being under is called ‘betting on the clock’.

A proposition bet is a type of bet where the online sports book chooses what the odds and the conditions of the bet are going to be. This type of bet can be most interesting, even a little fun at times, for the conditions can be as unusual as which of two football teams will make the most touchdowns, which of two basketball teams will score the most three pointers, or even which individual player will make a certain move for the team. The odds for this kind of bet are sometimes 11-10, but can be better or worse depending on the circumstances.

Assessing the Credibility of Professional Certifications

Use any search engine and type in “fake certification” or a similar term and you will likely find offers for certification credentials in your profession of choice without any skills assessment, training, or experience required – except for a valid credit card. Obviously, entering “fake certification” will result mostly in offers for “novelty” credentials; however, many so-called “legitimate” certification credentials can be just as worthless as the fakes. How can this be so? Well, the certification industry is largely unregulated. Basically, there are no regulating agencies to enforce standards, so each certifying body can create their own.

In fact, just about anyone can become a certification granting entity using a home computer and a printer. This is not to say that all certifications are phony; there are certification granting bodies that indeed have high standards, but unfortunately, most do not. For every credible and recognized certification, there are likely to be several competing ones that are unrecognized, questionable, or outright fakes. Being unregulated, the certification industry is truly a “wild west show”, making it difficult for the uninformed to identify the good from the bad. However, with a little footwork, it’s not that difficult to filter out value from the “junk”.

Assessment Criteria
If your goal is to obtain a credential that truly validates your expertise, it will likely be based on a combination of experience, a skills assessment, training and education, and a reference check. Keep in mind however, that even a program proclaiming use of these criteria can be “less than credible” if it waters them down or allows them to be “gamed” to an extent that enables anyone to qualify. For instance, a skills assessment could be a questionnaire that even a five year old could pass, training could be in an unrelated field, and experience or references could be stated and unverifiable. One way to gauge the validity of a certification program is to find out its pass rate. Usually, the higher the pass rate, the more likely it will fall into the “less than credible” category.

General Reputation
Name recognition can be good and bad; good as in trusted, valuable, and respected – bad as in infamous, notorious, or scam artist. Before signing up for a certification program, it would be prudent to learn of its reputation and that of the organization granting it. Search the Web, ask friends, family, coworkers, and others. For obvious reasons, the goal is to filter out certifications and/or organizations with negative reputations. However, keep in mind that just because a certification or organization isn’t well-known doesn’t mean it has no value. There are well-known organizations that offer certifications that are considered a “joke” by its industry practitioners, but those same credentials may appear credible to an uniformed public because of the name recognition factor. Also, small organizations offer certification programs that are often highly regarded within their professions, but are relatively unknown to the general public. Adding to the confusion, some well-known certification granting organizations may offer multiple certification programs, some which are credible and some which are not. Although name recognition by itself can provide an initial short-term credibility kick, it should be considered only if other indicators of quality and credibility are present.

Peer Acceptance
After filtering out the obvious junk, lam bang cap 2 the next step is to discover which certification credentials are valued by your industry’s practitioners. Talking with practicing professionals, employers, and customers can uncover a lot of valuable information. Highly regarded certifications as well as those considered as “worthless” are often well-known within particular industries, but there may be little information, good or bad, about them in the general public. Certification programs with a high acceptance among affected practitioners, employers, and customers enhances ROI (return on investment) and will reduce your chances of earning a worthless credential that can label you as a “wannabee” or “phony”. It’s just as important to discuss certification with seasoned practitioners who are not certified.

Betting Options For Football

It is in one’s best interest to know all your options before making a bet. The straight bet is more of a long haul type of bet. You are not going to rack up the big dough right away but over time, it will add up. The parlay bet is more of hope for bigger payouts quicker. These are more of a weekly bet. The teaser bet can be used in several ways. You won’t make a ton on teasers because the payouts are lower but they are a good way of “hedging” your bet. “Hedging” will be explained in more detail later. Finally, the round robin bet is a mix of straight bet payouts and parlay payouts. They can keep you in it for the long haul or can be a real quick payout. The following explanations should help you make the right choice and hopefully you will find a betting option you really enjoy.

The first and easiest football betting option is the straight bet. Let me rephrase that, making the bet is simple, picking which bet you like is even simpler if you have the right picks or knowledge. The straight bet is exactly like it sounds…straight. You find a team or an over/under you like and you just bet that. It’s a one-team bet.

For example, you like the Bengals -5 over the Texans. You would go down to the casino or make an Internet bet and tell the Sports book you would like 50 units on the Bengals. If they cover, you will receive you original bet back plus another 45.5 units. Same thing goes if you like an over/under. Say you like the over in the Chief’s game, which is 50. You would make the same bet as you would have with the Bengal’s game and the payout is the exact same. The straight bet is a betting option where you are in it for the whole season.

This isn’t the biggest moneymaker bet books have to offer. This is a bet where if you stay in it for the long haul, the profit will eventually start to show. Most handicappers choose this betting option.

The money line betting option is a lot 안전놀이터 like the straight bet with just a little twist. When you bet a football game on the money line, this involves a simple bet on the true winner of the game without a point spread. Lets go back to the example we used in the straight bet. In the straight bet, we liked the Bengals -5 over the Texans. With the money line bet, we could make two choices. We could bet that the Bengals are going win the game or the Texans are going to win the game. No point spreads, just win the game!

That is called the money line bet. There is a difference between the two choices though. If you decide to bet on the favorite, you must bet more than you stand to win. The reason for this is you are taking away the point spread and making it easier to win the bet. If on the other hand, you decide to choose the underdog, you are saying the underdog is going to win the game not just cover the spread. In this case, you stand to win more than you bet.

The next betting option is the parlay. Easy to do, a little harder to win. The parlay is a way to bet multiple games with the hope of a big payout at the end if all of the games win. The point spreads for the games are just the same as the straight bets so nothing changes there. For example, say you like the Dolphins +2 against the Eagles and the over in the game at 37. You would go to the sports book and tell them parlay and the Dolphins and the over for 50 units. If both bets cover you will receive your 50 units back plus an additional 180 units. A much bigger payout than the standard straight bet but again, a little harder to win. If just one game doesn’t win or draw you lose the whole bet, that’s why it’s considered a little harder.

Free Music Throughout Your Home With Spotify

For those of you who haven’t come across Spotify before you may well be asking what the hype is all about? Well Spotify is a free music internet streaming service that lets you play unlimited tracks with the addition of the occasional advert. The adverts are fairly unobtrusive, but for a monthly subscription ( £10 In the UK) you get unlimited tracks with no adverts. The great thing about Spotify is you can create and edit your own play lists just like you can on iTunes but without having to buy the actual music. Spotify have also introduced a new feature which allows you to save your tracks to your computer so you can play them without internet access. The new Spotify iPhone app will even let you stream and save free music directly to your iPhone!

Sure, Spotify is great on your laptop or pc, but what if you want to play that music through your home audio system? To integrate Spotify into a home audio system you need a stand alone solution that can access Spotify without your pc. Fortunately,Spotify released their own api package that allows software developers to write their own custom Spotify software. What does this mean? well the api will let you create custom software applications to interface with the Spotify client. Many great applications have already been created, most are based around sharing playlists between users but you can go further. For example, there’s an app that lets you stream Spotify to your hifi via Apple’s Airport and Airtunes adapter.


This will let you play Spotify music on your hifi, but you’ll still need your laptop/PC and it lacks the convenience of a larger integrated whole house system. What is possible, is to combine Spotify with a server application that integrates with any number of remote controls, keypads or touch-panels in the home. One solution is to build a stand alone box that acts as both a Spotify client and a tcp server that can be controlled from any number of ethernet devices throughout the home. The unit can be tucked away in a cupboard or even rack mounted in an existing AV hub. The box can be connected directly to a TV or hifi, but it can also be connected into a whole house AV system, whereby the Spotify music stream can be switched to any room in the house.

Many of the cool Spotify features can be easily incorporated into convenient hand held controls. Examples of what’s possible include: a Spotify search feature that lets you search by track,album and artist. Also you can create a seamless menu system that lets you search between these categories. You’ll also be able to create and edit play list from your searches and even incorporate other people’s play lists. Like the Spotify internet browser, cover art, album and artist information and even a list of recommended artists based upon your current music choices are all possible!

Spread Betting – How To Get Poor Quickly?

As I write this, I’m nursing a bit of a sore head and an empty wallet. In the last four weeks I’ve lost almost £30,000 spread betting for about an hour a day five days a week. So I managed to blow around £1,500 an hour. That’s really quite a chunk of cash. Actually, it’s not quite as bad as it looks. Fortunately, I was betting using a few spread-betting companies’ demo sites. These are simulations of their live betting sites that allow you to practice before you start betting with real money. I realise that I am no financial genius otherwise I would have been rich long ago. However, the fact that I managed to squander so much money so quickly does pose the question – if spread betting seems so easy, why do so many people get completely wiped out extremely quickly?

We’re increasingly seeing advertising for spread betting in investing and money management publications. In the one I subscribe to, four or five different spread betting companies take full-page colour ads each week, outnumbering any other type of advertising. Spread betting ads are already common in the business sections of many weekend newspapers and will probably soon start to appear in the personal finance sections. Spread betting could appear deceptively attractive to many savers. After all, money in a bank, shares or unit trusts will at best give us about a miserable five per cent a year before tax. Yet a reasonable run on spread betting can easily let you pocket ten per cent a week – five hundred per cent a year – completely and gloriously tax-free. So spread betting can let you earn in just one year what it would take a hundred years or more to achieve with most other investments.

Spread betters gamble on price movements of anything from individual shares, currencies and commodities to whole markets like the FTSE, Dax or S&P. It is called spread betting because the company providing the service makes most of their money by putting an additional spread around the price at which something is being bought or sold.

Spread betting appears to have many advantages compared to traditional investing:

    • You don’t have to buy anything – It allows you to bet on price movements without having to buy the underlying assets – shares, commodities or foreign exchange.


    • It’s tax-free – When you buy or sell shares, get paid dividends or receive interest from a bank you will have to pay taxes like stamp duty, capital gains and income tax. Unless spread betting is your full-time job and only source of income, there are no taxes to be paid as it’s considered to be gambling.


    • You can go long or short – When you spread bet you can gain just as much whether prices rise or fall, providing you guess the direction correctly. With most other investments, you need the price to go up before you make a profit.


    • You can bet on a rise or fall at the same time – If the FTSE, for example, is trading at 5551-5552, you can place two bets, one that it will rise and one that it will fall. These only get triggered when the FTSE actually moves. So if it starts going up, your bet that it will rise gets triggered. Similarly if it drops, only your bet that it will fall is triggered. So it can seem that, come rain or shine, you’ll probably win.


    • Huge leverage – If you bet say £50 a pip (a pip is usually the minimum price movement you can bet on), you can easily win four or five times your original bet if the price moves in the right direction. On a really good bet, you can win much much more.


    • You can wait for the breakout – Prices on many shares, currencies, commodities and other things people bet on tend to experience periods of stability followed by bursts of movement up or down, what spread-betters call ‘the breakout’. You can place a bet that is only activated when the breakout comes.


    • Loss limits – You can put 안전놀이터 conditions in your bet that prevent your losses exceeding your chosen level should your bet happen to be wrong.


  • You can adjust mid-flight – With most bets, such as with horse racing or on roulette, once the race has started or the croupier has called ‘no more bets’ you have to wait helplessly for the result to see if you’ve won or not. With spread betting you can choose to close your bet at any time. So if you’re ahead, you can take your winnings; if you’re behind you can either cut your losses or wait in the hope that things will change and you’ll be up again.

Given all these properties of spread betting, it should be pretty easy to make a fair bit of money without too much effort. If only.

Industry estimates suggest that around ninety per cent of spread-betters lose most or all of their money and close their accounts within three months of starting. There seem to be another eight per cent or so who make reasonable amounts of money on a regular basis and there are around two per cent of spread-betters who make fortunes. I’ve been to a few presentations run by spread betting companies and at one of these the salesman let slip that over eighty per cent of his customers lost money. Even many professionals lose on about six bets out of every ten. But by controlling their losses and maximising their returns when they win, they can increase their wealth.

Aerial Work Platform Safety The Dangers of Being Trapped at Height

Although aerial work platforms are acknowledged to be the safest means of providing temporary access at height, there are still risks, including an operator being trapped or crushed while working at height. This can happen in a variety of ways and situations, but mostly users become trapped either over the guardrail, due to moving too close to an overhead obstacle. Operators may also become trapped over the machine’s controls, which can cause the controls to cut out and increase difficulty in rescue and lowering of the lift. According to the HSE, there were six fatal accidents caused by trapping between 2003 and 2009 – therefore it is important to be aware of the dangers and ways in which you can ensure the safety of your staff when using powered access equipment.

Risks arise when an operative approaches an area at height in an aerial work platform. Visit : This includes scissor lifts, boom lifts, personnel lifts and trailer-mounted lifts. Roof spaces, beams and overhead obstacles all pose risks to users and extra care should be taken when working under these kinds of conditions. The most common situations for trapping accidents are in the following confined overhead areas:

  • during the erection of steel framed buildings
  • while installing ducting in a roof space
  • while working in a clear roof space
  • while working adjacent to an obstacle or object

Accidents generally happen because hazards have not been properly identified, operators are not paying attention to the obstacles around them and the movement of their aerial work platform, or by making an attempt to squeeze past an obstruction. Trapping can also occur when travelling in or out of a work area, for example over a curb or uneven ground, where movement is greatly exaggerated on the platform. Even rising over a small curb can result in an operative being trapped between the aerial work platform and an obstacle or roof above.

To safeguard against trapping and crushing accidents, a few simple steps should be followed whenever you are working in confined overhead areas:

1. Carry out task-specific assessments – plan your work and make sure operatives are aware of their surroundings and the possible hazards to avoid.

2. Select the correct equipment – consider which type of aerial work platform will be most appropriate, including the size of platform and method of access it provides.

3. Ensure all workers are trained to use the required powered access equipment – be aware that controls and use vary on each type and brand of aerial work platform. Both IPAF and PASMA training are widely available from powered access suppliers.

4. Follow basic safety procedures – such as checking your work area before moving the platform, controlling the platform slowly and carefully, not leaning over handrails, always looking in the direction you are travelling and never try to squeeze past an obstacle at height.

5. Ensure you employ trained rescuers who can help in the event of a trapping or crushing incident – this includes all your staff either knowing what to do or who is the correct safety personnel to contact for help. Rescuers should be familiar with the emergency lowering systems on each type of aerial work platform you use.